Famous Indian Scientists
Famous Indian Scientists and their Inventions.
1. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose was born on 30 November 1858, inMyemsingh, Faridpur, a part of the Dhaka District now in Bangladesh He attended the village school till he was 11 He then moved to Kolkata where he enrolled in St Xaviers He was very much interested in Biology However, Father Lafont, a famous Professor of Physics, inspired in Bose a great interest in Physics
Having obtained his BA in physical sciences, twenty two year old Bose left for London, to obtain a medical degree However, he kept falling ill and had to discontinue his plans to be a doctor He then obtained his BA degree from Christ College, Cambridge
He returned to India in 1885 and joined Presidency College, Kolkata as an Assistant Professor of Physics, where he remained till 1915 There was a peculiar practice in the college at that time The Indian teachers in the college were paid one third of what the British teachers were paid! So Bose refused his salary but worked for three years The fourth year he was paid in full! He was an excellent teacher, extensively using scientific demonstrations in class Some of his students, such as S N Bose went on to become famous physicists themselves
During this period, Bose also started doing original scientific work in the area of microwaves, carrying out experiments involving refraction, diffraction and polarization He developed the use of galena crystals for making receivers, both for short wavelength radio waves and for white and ultraviolet light In 1895, two years before Marconis demonstration, Bose demonstrated wireless communication using radio waves, using them to ring a bell remotely and to explode some gunpowder
Many of the microwave components familiar today waveguides, horn antennas, polarizers, dielectric lenses and prisms, and even semiconductor detectors of electromagnetic radiation were invented and used by Bose in the last decade of the nineteenth century He also suggested the existence of electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, which was confirmed in 1944 Bose then turned his attention to response phenomena in plants He showed that not only animal but vegetable tissues, produce similar electric response under different kinds of stimuli
2. Prafulla Chandra Ray
Prafulla Chandra was born on 2 August 1861 in RaruliKatipara, a village in the District of Khulna (in present day Bangladesh) His early education started in his village school He often played truant and spent his time resting comfortably on the branch of a tree, hidden under its leaves After attending the village school, he went to Kolkata, where he studied at Hare School and the Metropolitan College The lectures of Alexander Pedler in the Presidency College, which he used to attend, attracted him to chemistry, although his first love was literature He continued to take interest in literature, and taught himself Latin and French at home After obtaining a FA diploma from the University of Calcutta, he proceeded to the University of Edinburgh on a Gilchrist scholarship where he obtained both his BSc and DSc degrees In 1888, Prafulla Chandra made his journey home to India Initially he spent a year working with his famous friend Jagadish Chandra Bose in his laboratory In 1889, Prafulla Chandra was appointed an Assistant Professor of Chemistry in the Presidency College, Kolkata His publications on mercurous nitrite and its derivatives brought him recognition from all over the world Equally important was his role as a teacher he inspired a generation of young chemists in India thereby building up an Indian school of chemistry Famous Indian scientists like Meghnad Saha and Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar were among his students
Prafulla Chandra believed that the progress of India could be achieved only by industrialization He set up the first chemical factory in India, with very minimal resources, working from his home In 1901, this pioneering effort resulted in the formation of the Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works Ltd
He retired from the Presidency College in 1916, and was appointed as Professor of Chemistry at the University Science College In 1921 when Prafulla Chandra reached 60 years, he donated, in advance, all his salary for the rest of his service in the University to the development of the Department of Chemistry and to the creation of two research fellowships The value of this endowment was about two lakh rupees He eventually retired at the age of 75 In Prafulla Chandra Ray, the qualities of both a scientist and an industrial entrepreneur were combined and he can be thought of as the father of the Indian Pharmaceutical industry
3. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born at Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu on 7 November 1888 His father was a lecturer in mathematics and physics so from the very beginning he was immersed in an academic atmosphere Ramans academic brilliance was established at a very young age He finished his secondary school education at the tender age of thirteen and entered the Mrs AVN College at Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh Two years later he moved to the prestigious Presidency College in Chennai When he was fifteen, he topped his class to receive his BA degree with honours in Physics and English Raman continued his studies at the Presidency College and when he was barely eighteen, graduated at the top of his class and received his MA degree with honours
Raman joined the Indian Audit and Accounts Service and was appointed the Assistant Accountant General in the Finance Department in Kolkata In Kolkata, he sustained his interest in science by working in the laboratory of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, in his spare time studying the physics of stringed instruments and Indian drums
In 1917, Raman gave up his government job to become the Sir Taraknath Palit Professor of Physics at the Science College of University of Calcutta (191733) He made enormous contributions to research in the areas of vibration, sound, musical instruments, ultrasonics, diffraction, photoelectricity, colloidal particles, Xray diffraction, magnetron, dielectrics, etc In particular, his work on the scattering of light during this period brought him worldwide recognition
In 1924 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London and a year later was honoured with the prestigious Hughes medal from the Royal Society Four years later, at the joint meeting of the South Indian Science Association and the Science Club of Central College, Bangalore, he announced his discovery of what is now known as the Raman Effect
He was knighted in 1929, and in 1930, became the first Asian scientist to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for his discoveries relating to the scattering of light (the Raman Effect) In 1934, he became the Director of the newly established Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore, where he remained till his retirement After retirement, he established the Raman Research Institute at Bangalore, where he served as the Director The Government of India conferred upon him its highest award,the Bharat Ratna in 1954
4. Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose was born on New Years day, 1894 in Goabagan in Kolkata. His father was an accountant in Indian Railways. Satyendra Nath popularly known as Satyen Bose, did his schooling at Hindu School, Kolkata, and then joined Presidency College. He excelled in academics throughout his education Intermediate, B.Sc. and M.Sc. with applied mathematics. His teacher at the Presidency College was Jagadish Chandra Bose - whose other stellar pupil was Meghnad Saha. Bose took his B.Sc. examination in 1913 and his M.Sc examination in 1915. He stood first in both the examinations, the second place going to Meghnad Saha.
He worked as a lecturer of physics in the Science College of the University of Calcutta (1916-21) and along with Meghnad Saha, introduced postgraduate courses in modern mathematics and physics. He derived with Saha, the Saha-Bose equation of state for a nonideal gas. In 1921, Bose left Kolkata to become a Reader at the Dakha University. It was during this period that he wrote the famous paper on the statistics of photons. It was named Bose statistics after him and is now an integral part of physics. Paul Dirac, the legendary physicist, coined the term boson for particles obeying these statistics. Apart from this he did theoretical work on the general theory of relativity and also experimental work on crystallography, fluorescence, and thermoluminescence.
Bose spent about 10 months in Paris in 1924, doing research with Madame Curie and Louis de Broglie. Later he went to Berlin where he met Einstein. He returned to Dhaka in 1926 and became Professor. Shortly before Independence, Bose returned to Kolkata to become the Khaira Professor of Physics, a post he kept till 1956. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1958, and the Government of India named him a National Professor and awarded him the honor of Padma Vibhushan.
5. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar
Bhatnagar was born on 21 February 1894 at Bhera, in the district of Shapur in Punjab (now in Pakistan) When he was barely eight months old, his father passed away He spent his next thirteen years under the care of his maternal grandfather in Bulandshahar in Uttar Pradesh Under the influence of his grandfather, young Bhatnagar not only developed a taste for engineering and science but also became interested at a very early age in geometry and algebra and in making mechanical toys In 1911, Shanti published a letter to the editor, in The Leader, Allahabad, on how to make a substitute for carbon electrodes in a battery using molasses and carbonaceous matter under pressure and heat
Matriculating the same year, he joined the Dayal Singh College, Lahore After finishing his intermediate examination in first division, Shanti joined the Forman Christian College and after his BSc and MSc degrees, he spent the next two years at the University of London earning his DSc degree on the surface tension of oils, under the supervision of Professor FG Donnan Returning to India in 1921, he joined the Benares Hindu University as a Professor, remaining there till 1924 From 1924 to 1940 he served as the Director of the University Chemical Laboratories, Lahore, addressing problems in industrial and applied chemistry
In August 1940, Bhatnagar took over as the Director of the newly created Directorate of Scientific and Industrial Research This organisation became the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, with Bhatnagar as its Director Bhatnagars tenure saw the setting up of 12 laboratories and the total number of CSIR laboratories today stands at 40
The British Government conferred on him the Order of the British Empire and in 1941, he was made the Knight Bachelor In 1943 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and received the Padma Vibhushan (1954) from the Government of India
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar played a significant part along with Homi Bhabha, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, Vikram Sarabhai and others in building of postindependence Science & Technology infrastructure and in the formulation of Indias science policies

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